The Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKind)
Number of Subjects in Study Archive: 3075
Study Design: Case-Control
Conditions: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Diabetic Nephropathies, Kidney Diseases
Duration: 2000 – 2004
# Recruitment Centers: 2
Treatment: None, observational only
Available Genotype Data: Yes
Image Summary: No
Transplant Type: None
Does it have dialysis patients: No
Clinical Trials URL:
The Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study was an initiative that aimed to identify genes that are involved in diabetic nephropathy. A large number of individuals with type 1 diabetes were screened to identify two subsets, one with clear-cut kidney disease and another with normal renal status despite long-term diabetes. Those who met additional entry criteria and consented to participate were enrolled. When possible, both parents also were enrolled to form family trios. DNA, serum, plasma, and urine samples and clinical information were collected from participants. A repository of genetic and clinical information was created for use in genetic analysis to investigate the genetic risk factors of the renal disease of Type 1 diabetes, with the ultimate aim of determining pathways for intervention to prevent diabetic kidney disease and allow targeting of preventive therapies.
GWAS data must be requested through dbGAP.
The GoKinD study aimed to establish a repository of DNA and clinical information from adults with long-term Type 1 diabetes, with or without kidney disease, along with their parents. Genetic information was used to identify genes involved in diabetic nephropathy and ultimately help to determine pathways for intervention to prevent diabetic kidney disease.
To be eligible as a case patient, a patient had to have type 1 diabetes (minimum 10 year duration) and severe diabetic nephropathy (ESRD or persistent proteinuria). To be eligible as a control subject, a patient had to have type 1 diabetes for at least 15 years and have normoalbuminuria despite never having been treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and not receiving current treatment with antihypertensive medication. Persistent proteinuria and normoalbuminuria were defined by the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) (≥300 and <20 μg/mg, respectively). When both parents of a participant were alive and willing to participate, both were examined to form complete trios (proband and both parents) for analysis.
Further details of eligibility and exclusion requirements are detailed in the study protocol.
The GoKinD study created a repository of genetic information of participants with Type 1 diabetes, with and without nephropathy, and their parents to further the study of genetic associations with diabetic nephropathy.